The hottest nuclear power 2019 is not only approve

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Nuclear power 2019: not only approval, but also safety

at the beginning of 2019, China Nuclear Power Group Zhangzhou nuclear power phase I and China Guangdong Nuclear Power Huizhou taipingling nuclear power phase I projects were approved, and domestic nuclear power ended three years of zero approval. While nuclear power was re approved, safety was also reaffirmed. In July, the comprehensive Department of the National Energy Administration issued a notice on the operational performance indicators of nuclear power plants (Trial), with the purpose of

at the beginning of 2019, CNNC Zhangzhou nuclear power phase I and CGN Huizhou taipingling nuclear power phase I projects were approved, and domestic nuclear power ended three years of zero approval. While nuclear power was re approved, safety was reaffirmed again. In July, the comprehensive Department of the National Energy Administration issued a notice on the operational performance indicators of nuclear power plants (Trial), aiming to strengthen the safety management of nuclear power operations. So, what is the current situation of China's nuclear safety system? Where should we go in the future

the world energy structure is facing major changes. Nuclear energy, wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, geothermal energy and other new energy will gradually dominate. China needs to seek the best new energy strategy and route in the international energy environment. As far as nuclear energy is concerned, it is scientific, efficient, green and low-carbon. If there is a reliable nuclear safety system to ensure the development of nuclear energy/electricity, it will be in line with China's long-term major strategy of energy conservation priority and total amount control

since China began to develop nuclear energy/electricity in the 1970s, it has the conditions for large-scale development of nuclear energy in terms of plant site resources, nuclear power equipment manufacturing, nuclear uranium fuel resources and other hardware and software, but the development of nuclear energy should attach great importance to nuclear safety, so as to achieve the unity of nuclear energy/electricity safety and economy

in March, 2011, the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan shocked and grieved all mankind. The Fukushima "nuclear earthquake" affected hundreds of millions of hearts and sounded the alarm bell of nuclear safety for us

in China, the anti nuclear mass protest in Heshan, Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province in July 2013 was due to the fact that CNNC planned to build a large-scale nuclear fuel processing plant locally, and the final commitment of the project government was withdrawn; On August 6, 2016, tens of thousands of Lianyungang citizens took to the streets to oppose an "unwarranted" threat: the Sino French cooperative nuclear cycle project

in view of the high sensitivity of nuclear facilities, the safety management of nuclear facilities is directly managed by the state. The national nuclear and radiation safety supervision department is responsible for the nuclear and radiation safety review, supervision and inspection of more than 120 military and civilian nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants, from site selection, design, construction to commissioning, operation and decommissioning

taking the operation stage of nuclear power plant as an example, due to the actual accident risk of nuclear power plant, in addition to daily supervision, the approval of safety related design modifications, the annual refueling review of nuclear power plant, the analysis and feedback of operating experience, and the qualification and training of operators are all the contents of nuclear safety supervision. 15 ~ 20 people/year are needed for the review of a nuclear power unit. In depth implementation also requires qualification examination management of the whole industrial chain of nuclear equipment manufacturing, manufacturing and installation units, and on-site supervision of the quality of their activities

with the severe situation and heavy tasks brought about by the development of nuclear energy/electricity, it is particularly important to improve and build a complete nuclear safety system. The following author puts forward some suggestions on the construction of nuclear safety system

straighten out institutional mechanisms and improve nuclear safety management at the national level

at present, China is already the largest country in the world with nuclear energy/power under construction. Does its nuclear safety management system match it

the nuclear/power crisis caused by the Japanese earthquake also directly tested the institutional preparation of regulators in various countries

most countries have relatively independent nuclear safety management systems. The United States is the first country in the world to implement independent nuclear safety supervision. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States was established in 1974, and the chairman of the Commission was appointed by the president

France is supervised by the nuclear facilities safety agency under the leadership of the Ministry of industry and the Ministry of environment, and has also established an inter Ministerial Committee on basic nuclear facilities headed by the prime minister and a high Advisory Committee on nuclear safety and intelligence

in Russia, the nuclear and radiation safety agency of the Russian Federation is responsible for the supervision of nuclear facilities. The head of the nuclear and radiation safety agency of the Russian Federation is appointed by the president of the Russian Federation and directly led by the Deputy Prime Minister of Russia

reflect on the safety of Japan's nuclear facilities, which are supervised by several departments respectively. Commercial nuclear power plants are in the charge of the Ministry of communications and industry, marine reactors are in the charge of the Ministry of transport, and nuclear fuel cycle facilities and research reactors are in the charge of the Department of science and technology. The Japan Nuclear Safety Commission is responsible for formulating policies for the safety supervision of nuclear facilities, regulations and guidelines for nuclear safety and the prevention of nuclear damage. When the Fukushima nuclear accident occurred in March 2011, its handling measures were questionable, and there were many problems in the coordination between various departments and TEPCO

the International Atomic Energy Agency fully recognizes the achievements of China's nuclear and radiation safety supervision, but the problem of departmental coordination still exists

at present, the National Nuclear Safety Administration belongs to "one team, two signboards", which is the nuclear safety management department of the Ministry of environmental protection and the nuclear safety administration externally. The nuclear safety management department of the Ministry of environmental protection, together with the nuclear and radiation safety center directly under the Ministry of environmental protection and six regional supervision stations, still lags far behind advanced nuclear/power countries

the national nuclear safety administration is mainly responsible for the supervision of the whole life cycle under normal conditions. The national emergency response office is mainly a handling agency for abnormal accidents. Once a nuclear and safety accident occurs, its impact is very huge. It is difficult to rely on the emergency department of the national nuclear safety administration to deal with it, but we must set up a stronger institution and mobilize more human, material and financial resources to solve it

professional, standardized and large-scale operation, strengthening the construction of nuclear safety team

accelerating the construction of nuclear safety system, in addition to straightening out the nuclear safety management system, it is very important to strengthen the construction of nuclear safety team

further increase the staffing of nuclear safety supervision personnel, increase funds, avoid the loss of nuclear safety supervision and technical talents, stabilize the technical talent team, strengthen the education and training of cadres, and improve the efficiency and level of nuclear safety supervision

countries with relatively developed nuclear energy/electricity in the world usually have about 35 supervisors for one unit, and nearly 4000 supervisors for more than 100 units in the United States. There are more than 50 units in France and more than 2000 supervisors in Japan

at present, China's nuclear regulatory team is relatively weak. The country has begun to expand the team, which is expected to grow to 1500 by 2020

even so, there is still a certain gap compared with our current development speed of nuclear energy/electricity. In terms of human investment in this area, whether this round of adjustment is actually a fundamental recovery or a short-term repair of steel lags behind into another landing range remains to be verified and saved by the market. In terms of team building, we should improve specialization, standardization and scale

strengthen the construction of nuclear safety research facilities

at present, there is no special research institution on reactor safety in China. There is an urgent need to build special nuclear reactors and their supporting experimental facilities to conduct comprehensive research on the safety of reactors

(i.e. the sample is kept in the jaw, in the jaw, in the parallel section or out of the gauge distance) it is suggested that the government and agencies should divide it into two separate differences (the first should be zero) by two related research institutes, which are systematically subordinate to the nuclear emergency center of the State Council and independent of the nuclear safety administration and relevant groups (China Nuclear Power Group, Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, China nuclear technology, etc.), and can be named as "national reactor safety research center", On the basis of the reactor safety research reactor, we carry out a large number of research on reactor safety, and have the right to veto the relevant domestic nuclear safety evaluation and the introduction of relevant foreign nuclear technology

The research contents related to reactor safety can be divided into the following aspects: Research on basic principles of nuclear reactor safety, research on safety system of nuclear reactor, research on transient analysis of nuclear reactor, research on deterministic safety analysis, research on serious accidents of nuclear power/power plant, research on safety analysis model and procedure of advanced nuclear reactor, research on probabilistic safety assessment method, research on release and hazard analysis of radioactive substances, Research on the improvement and development of nuclear safety

consider strengthening the construction of private nuclear safety supervision system, introducing third-party independent nuclear safety supervision

build a private nuclear safety supervision system and form a tripartite supervision mechanism

the third-party supervision organization is a supplement to the government supervision, and acts as a supplementary force to implement the supervision function when the government supervision is not in place. The third-party forces can be local residents, who are the main groups directly related to nuclear safety; It can also be an intermediary institution, including research institutions, non-governmental organizations, institutions of the National People's Congress, the media, and representatives of all sectors of society. Establish a third-party organization for supervision, and form a benign interaction between enterprises, governments, and third-party supervision, so as to ensure that enterprises do not do some non-compliance things when they are out of control

the World Association of nuclear power operators (WANO) is a successful example. WANO was established in Moscow on May 15th, 1989. WANO has been operating successfully for more than 20 years and has made great contributions to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power/power plants. The annual general meeting is held every year, and a WANO president is elected every two years to serve the biennial general meeting. The WANO Council manages WANO's activities and consists of eight to nine voting directors

it is suggested that the state should support the establishment of a third-party regulatory body similar to WANO organization, and form a third-party regulatory mechanism to ensure that enterprises do not do something non-conforming when they are out of control. On February 21, 2019, the WANO General Assembly unanimously approved the "Shanghai center project", and the WANO Shanghai center officially landed

strengthening the exchange of nuclear risk information and building people's confidence in nuclear safety

the sharing and exchange of nuclear risk information is very important to establish and maintain the confidence in the safe operation of nuclear facilities and the safety of people. To this end, the public should be strengthened to obtain simple and consistent nuclear risk information from official channels; Strengthen the exchange of nuclear risk information with countries with nuclear facilities in the world, especially with countries and regions around China

the Fukushima nuclear power accident in Japan is no exception. Under the condition of blocked information exchange, the decision-making level and experts in surrounding countries have been blocked from obtaining information, making it difficult to make reasonable response strategies; Without exception, the public has taken some inappropriate or unreasonable actions, resulting in significant psychological and economic harmful effects, which even occur in emergencies with almost no radioactive consequences

in terms of national information exchange, the U.S. Nuclear Safety Regulatory Commission and the French General Administration of nuclear safety and radiation protection have signed an agreement on information exchange and cooperation in nuclear safety supervision technology. Considering the eastern earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear accident, Japan's government promised to share the experience and lessons learned in nuclear accidents and earthquakes with China, South Korea and the international community

countries should strengthen information exchange, which should include decisions and policies on the supervision of nuclear facilities, license approval activities of major nuclear facilities and consideration of their safety and environmental factors, early notification and expert exchange of important events such as serious operation events and government ordered nuclear reactor shutdown, so as to operate nuclear facilities safely with maximum transparency

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